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Binghamton Speech & Debate

Proposition: Kathleene Humphries (Liberty High School) vs. Opposition: Nicholas Holmes (University of Michigan-Flint )

Judge: Joe Leeson-Schatz (Binghamton University)

Resolution: THBT: An overriding ethical obligation to protect and preserve extraterrestrial microbial life and ecosystems should be incorporated into international law.

  • Kathleene Humphries
    Kathleene Humphries
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    Nicholas Holmes
    Nicholas Holmes
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    Posted at April 25, 2016 10:34:36PM EST by Kathleene Humphries

    Citations

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    REFERENCES

    OBSERVATION: Fischer-Columbo, Bailey. "NASA ASTROBIOLOGY DEBATES." NASA ASTROBIOLOGY DEBATES. 26 Aug. 2015. Web. 17 Apr. 2016. http://www.nasadebates.org/BrianHenning.php

    CONTENTION 1:

    Napier, Lauren. "Interplanetary Contamination and Extraterrestrial Life." Space Safety Magazine. Web. 17 Apr. 2016. http://www.spacesafetymagazine.com/space-exploration/extraterrestrial-life/

    Iacurci, Jenna. "Earth's Microorganisms Could Potentially Contaminate Mars." Nature World News RSS. 06 May 2014. Web. 17 Apr. 2016. http://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/6918/20140506/earths-microorganisms-could-potentially-contaminate-mars.htm

    Gronstal, Aaron. “NASA Astrobiology Institute A View Into the Complexity of Microbial Communities.” NASA. 08 Apr. 2016. Web. 20 March. 2016. http://nai.nasa.gov/articles/2016/4/8/a-view-into-the-complexity-of-microbial-communities/

    Caspermeyer, Joe. “Space Flight Shown to Alter Ability of Bacteria to Cause Disease.”Arizona State University. 23 Sept. 2007. Web. 17 Apr. 2016. https://biodesign.asu.edu/news/space-flight-shown-alter-ability-bacteria-cause-disease

    CONTENTION 2:

    Howell, Elizabeth. "How Would The World Change If We Found Extraterrestrial Life? - Astrobiology Magazine." Astrobiology Magazine. 29 Jan. 2015. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. http://www.astrobio.net/news-exclusive/world-change-found-extraterrestrial-life/

    Glaser, Sarah M. "NASA ASTROBIOLOGY DEBATES." NASA ASTROBIOLOGY DEBATES. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. http://www.nasadebates.org/SarahGlaser.php

    Cockell, Charles. "How the Search for Aliens Can Help Sustain Life on Earth." CNN. Cable News Network, 02 Oct. 2012. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2012/10/02/world/europe/astrobiology-aliens-environment-opinion/

    Dunbar, Brian, and William Bryan. "The BioScan System Locates Cancerous Lesions by Detecting the Cancer's Ability to Recruit a New Blood Supply." NASA. NASA, 2009. Web. 18 Apr. 2016. http://www.nasa.gov/offices/ipp/products/pr_cancer_bioscan.html

    CONTENTION 3

    Dyer, Gwynne. With Every Mistake. Toronto: Random House Canada, 2005. Google Books. 10 July 2010. Web. 25 Apr. 2016. <https://books.google.com/books?id=hLFrX6dmTr8C&pg=PA180&lpg=PA180&dq=professor wickramasinghe microbial life in atmosphere&source=bl&ots=bPz_EDdKYI&sig=-1MHuWh4bJYYE1_iBp1G9U-Uh98&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwijtdfx56rMAhUMKCYKHV8SD6I4ChDoAQg2MAU#v=onepage&q&f=false>.

    Posted at April 26, 2016 03:23:58PM EST by Nicholas Holmes

    Citations

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    George, Marie 2/3/2016 (Professor of Philosophy at St. John's University, NASA Debate Interview Series, "NASA Debate Interview Series- Marie I. George": https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YW4IkR_8ObY).

    Hirshfield, Irvin 2/3/16 (Microbiologist at St. John’s University, NASA Debate Interview Series, “NASA Debate Interview Series- Irvin N. Hirshfield.”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5JeNH3KGAU8).

    Kaspar, David 12/1/2015 (Professor of Ethics at St. John's University and author of “Intuitionism,” NASA Debate Interview Series, " NASA Debate Interview Series - David Kaspar": https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nXd1zaD1BTU).

    Merriam-Webster Dictionary (“overriding”: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/overriding).

    Miller, Mark 5/16/14 (National Geographic, “To Protect Alien Life-Forms, Earth Spacecraft Being Sanitized”: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/05/140516-space-nasa-spacecraft-sanitized-bacteria-planets-life-forms/).

    Plait, Phil 9/20/13 (Degree from the University of Michigan, PhD in Astronomy from the University of Virginia, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Education and Public Outreach at physics and astronomy department at Sonoma State University, and NASA public outreach for GLAST, Swift, and XMM-Newton satellites, Slate Magazine, “Has Alien Life Been Found in Earth’s Atmosphere? I’m Gonna Go With ‘No.’”: http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2013/09/20/et_claims_of_alien_life_in_earth_s_atmosphere_are_unfounded.html).

    Siefert, Jannet 2/10/2016 (president of the International Astrobiology Society and astrobiologist at Rice University, researches understanding origins of life through microbial biology, NASA Debate Interview Series, " 2015 NASA Astrobiology Debates - Interview with Jan Siefert by The George Washington University": https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6I02-MP47nQ).

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse 6/30/16 (Degree in Physics from Harvard University, Masters in Astronomy from the University of Texas at Austin, Masters of Philosophy in Astrophysics from Colombia University, PhD in Astrophysics from Colombia University, and Director of the American Museum of Natural History’s Hayden Planetarium, NASA’s Astrophysics Magazine, “The Search for Life in the Universe”: http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/starsgalaxies/search_life_I.html).

    Williamson, Mark 2003 (Space Technology Consultant of Glebe House, Elsevier Science, "Space Ethics and the Protection of Space Environment": http://www.chriscunnings.com/uploads/2/0/7/7/20773630/space_environment.pdf).

    Posted at April 27, 2016 10:50:49PM EST by Kathleene Humphries

    Citations

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    REFERENCES

    OBSERVATION: Fischer-Columbo, Bailey. "NASA ASTROBIOLOGY DEBATES." NASA ASTROBIOLOGY DEBATES. 26 Aug. 2015. Web. 17 Apr. 2016. http://www.nasadebates.org/BrianHenning.php

    CONTENTION 1:

    Napier, Lauren. "Interplanetary Contamination and Extraterrestrial Life." Space Safety Magazine. Web. 17 Apr. 2016. http://www.spacesafetymagazine.com/space-exploration/extraterrestrial-life/

    Iacurci, Jenna. "Earth's Microorganisms Could Potentially Contaminate Mars." Nature World News RSS. 06 May 2014. Web. 17 Apr. 2016. http://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/6918/20140506/earths-microorganisms-could-potentially-contaminate-mars.htm

    Gronstal, Aaron. “NASA Astrobiology Institute A View Into the Complexity of Microbial Communities.” NASA. 08 Apr. 2016. Web. 20 March. 2016. http://nai.nasa.gov/articles/2016/4/8/a-view-into-the-complexity-of-microbial-communities/

    Caspermeyer, Joe. “Space Flight Shown to Alter Ability of Bacteria to Cause Disease.”Arizona State University. 23 Sept. 2007. Web. 17 Apr. 2016. https://biodesign.asu.edu/news/space-flight-shown-alter-ability-bacteria-cause-disease

    CONTENTION 2:

    Howell, Elizabeth. "How Would The World Change If We Found Extraterrestrial Life? - Astrobiology Magazine." Astrobiology Magazine. 29 Jan. 2015. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. http://www.astrobio.net/news-exclusive/world-change-found-extraterrestrial-life/

    Glaser, Sarah M. "NASA ASTROBIOLOGY DEBATES." NASA ASTROBIOLOGY DEBATES. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. http://www.nasadebates.org/SarahGlaser.php

    Cockell, Charles. "How the Search for Aliens Can Help Sustain Life on Earth." CNN. Cable News Network, 02 Oct. 2012. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2012/10/02/world/europe/astrobiology-aliens-environment-opinion/

    Dunbar, Brian, and William Bryan. "The BioScan System Locates Cancerous Lesions by Detecting the Cancer's Ability to Recruit a New Blood Supply." NASA. NASA, 2009. Web. 18 Apr. 2016. http://www.nasa.gov/offices/ipp/products/pr_cancer_bioscan.html

    CONTENTION 3

    Dyer, Gwynne. With Every Mistake. Toronto: Random House Canada, 2005. Google Books. 10 July 2010. Web. 25 Apr. 2016. <https://books.google.com/books?id=hLFrX6dmTr8C&pg=PA180&lpg=PA180&dq=professor wickramasinghe microbial life in atmosphere&source=bl&ots=bPz_EDdKYI&sig=-1MHuWh4bJYYE1_iBp1G9U-Uh98&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwijtdfx56rMAhUMKCYKHV8SD6I4ChDoAQg2MAU#v=onepage&q&f=false>.

    Rebuttal:

    Brunnée, Jutta. Enforcement Mechanisms in International Law and International Environmental Law. Www.law.utoronto.ca. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2016. <https://www.law.utoronto.ca/documents/brunnee/BrunneeEnforcementMechanismsInt_lLaw.pdf>.

    Koh, Harold Hongju. Why Do Nations Obey International Law? Yale Law School. N.p., 1 Jan. 1997. Web. 27 Apr. 2016. <http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2897&context=fss_papers>.

    Posted at April 28, 2016 11:22:48PM EST by Nicholas Holmes

    Citations

    Show

    New sources:
    Tyson, Neil deGrasse 2/12/16 (Degree in Physics from Harvard University, Masters in Astronomy from the University of Texas at Austin, Masters of Philosophy in Astrophysics from Colombia University, PhD in Astrophysics from Colombia University, and Director of the American Museum of Natural History’s Hayden Planetarium, Business Insider, “Neil deGrasse Tyson explains why we need to find aliens”: http://www.businessinsider.com/neil-degrasse-tyson-different-alien-life-forms-2016-2).

    Mount Holyoke University n.d. (“International Law: Is it Effective?”: http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~beabbeyw/international%20law.html).
    Oxford Dictionaries n.d. (“extraterrestrial”: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/extraterrestrial).

    Ones previously cited and referenced again:
    Merriam-Webster Dictionary (“overriding”: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/overriding).

    Plait, Phil 9/20/13 (Degree from the University of Michigan, PhD in Astronomy from the University of Virginia, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Education and Public Outreach at physics and astronomy department at Sonoma State University, and NASA public outreach for GLAST, Swift, and XMM-Newton satellites, Slate Magazine, “Has Alien Life Been Found in Earth’s Atmosphere? I’m Gonna Go With ‘No.’”: http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2013/09/20/et_claims_of_alien_life_in_earth_s_atmosphere_are_unfounded.html).

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse 6/30/16 (Degree in Physics from Harvard University, Masters in Astronomy from the University of Texas at Austin, Masters of Philosophy in Astrophysics from Colombia University, PhD in Astrophysics from Colombia University, and Director of the American Museum of Natural History’s Hayden Planetarium, NASA’s Astrophysics Magazine, “The Search for Life in the Universe”: http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/starsgalaxies/search_life_I.html).

    Posted at April 29, 2016 11:23:53PM EST by Kathleene Humphries

    Citations

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    Same as last speech.

    Status

    This match has been completed. Show the Decision.

    Submitted at May 1, 2016 07:46:57PM EST by Joe Leeson-Schatz

    Category Kathleene Humphries Nicholas Holmes
    Use of evidence: 5.5 5.5
    Delivery skill: 4.5 4.4
    Coherence of arguments: 5 4
    Responsiveness to opponent: 4.2 4.2
    Identification of key points: 4.7 3.5
    Comments: I like how you start out clearly defining what you mean by "overriding ethical obligation" since I think that's the key term in this year's resolution. Great job with citations and clearly outlying your impact scenarios. I also think your contentions flow really well from one to the next and you have the appropriate time allocation in your opening speech.

    Great job answering his evidence with dates, as well as going through his arguments point by point. I think you should extend your initial impacts as your first line of offense as a way to answer the opp's arguments. I like how you answer the dictionary definition as well.
    I would prefer if you started out with your answers instead of just asking the questions. I again also think your opening speech would be a lot stronger if you had a clear counterplan or advocacy as a result. Otherwise, the majority of your speech functions as defense. You need to have more that can function as offense as a reason to vote for you. The question of tying our hands could be that offense, but you need to do more with that in order to make it a winning impact. You should also weigh it against the prop's impacts. Also, again, going for international law bad instead of international law fails would be better. Also, if international law fails then how can it solve things like climate change?

    Good job answering back her points and extending yours. You still need to do more work in regards to framing the ballot. Tell me why I should vote for you and write the ballot for me instead of just giving me options for arguments that I can vote on. When you just give a laundry list of answers instead of a singular reason to vote for the opposition, your speech will almost end up more defensive than you would like it to be. You do need to respond to the prop's answer to your definition versus a field contextual definition on the topic. Good job on defending your sources versus hers.

    The decision is for the Proposition: Kathleene Humphries

    Reason for Decision:

    This is the best round I've judged citation-wise and one of the better rounds I've judged in regards to clash and line-by-line. I ultimately vote for the proposition since the aff does a better job at framing a ballot in order for how I should vote versus a bunch of objections and potential ways of voting. While I think the opp's evidence is qualified on ET life, I do think that it being 13 years old is a reason why it doesn't consider more recent findings so I think the recency of the evidence is more important. Ultimately, I find that there is a bigger risk of solving some issues with the prop versus the potential risks the opp outlines (more pressing matters) since if international law is a flawed institution that fails I think that it will fail in those instances as well; whereas the prop explains that success and enforcement in regards to the prop plan aren't necessarily equated. Good job overall by both sides and definitely a close debate. Ballot framing is what made the difference.


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